Tiraz textile fragment. Egypt, 12th century. Linen and silk. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada, Abemayor Collection given in memory of Dr. Veronika Gervers, Associate Curator, Textile Department (1968-1979) by Albert and Federico Friedberg, 978.76.504.A

Extremely fine silk and linen tiraz textiles, occasionally embellished with gold-wrapped silk threads, were produced in private and state-run factories during the Fatimid and Mamluk periods, from the 10th to the 14th century. Many tiraz textiles bear inscriptions recording the names, titles, and dates of rulers, as well as declarations of faith. The “robes of honor” reportedly given to Mansa Musa were almost certainly tiraz, as they were among the high-value gifts presented to visiting dignitaries by rulers.